Posted September 5th, 2019
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Author’s Note, September 12, 2020 – I modified the footnote on page 5 from the original version, which had referred to the States’ role in governing the militia, but did not mention the role of Congress. Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution allots certain responsibilities in that regard to the state governments and to Congress, respectively.
Author’s Note, May 23, 2020 – I made some changes to the footnotes to include an excerpt from Federalist No. 51, in which James Madison explains how federalism supplements the separation of powers. As a result, the position of paragraphs on the pages after page 4 has changed slightly compared to the original version. No significant changes were made to the body of the essay.